Update on the ParaÍba Tourmaline Origin

First, some background: Paraíba is a tourmaline from the São José da Batalha in the state of Paraíba in northeastern Brazil that has a neon “Windex blue” or electric “Scope green” color. Tourmalines from Paraíba get their saturated, vivid electric color from two trace elements, copper and manganese. Mineralogists have named this variety of tourmaline cuprian elbaite. Recent finds in Nigeria and Mozambique also produce cuprian elbaite. Most dealers contend that, while their hue is similar to lesser-quality tourmaline from Paraíba, it never matches the saturated neon and electric colors of the best stones from São José da Batalha. Nevertheless, the name Paraíba has been used to label cuprian elbaite from Nigeria, Mozambique, and other Brazilian mines north of Batalha. The name Paraíba has also been used to describe a color. For example, Home Shopping Network has sold
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